The present review is to avail the comprehensive information on the pathgenesis and treatment of diabetic neuropathy. Diabetic neuropathy is the most common form of neuropathy in the developed countries. Diabetic neuropathy has been defined as the presence of symptoms and/or signs of peripheral nerve dysfunction in people with diabetes after the exclusion of other causes which may range from hereditary, traumatic, compressive, metabolic, toxic, nutritional, infectious, immune mediated, neoplastic, and secondary to other systemic illness. Both metabolic alternations in the cellular components (mainly neurons and Schwann cells ) and microvascular abnormalities are though to play major roles in the development of diabetic neuropathy Several possible mechanisms have been proposed in the pathogenesis of diabetic neuropathy including altered metabolism of polyol, lipids, or amino acids, vascular insufficiency, increased superoxide – induced free radial formation etc. Pain in diabetic neuropathy has found to be multifactorial.