Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and through under-diagnosis, is often inappropriately treated. This multicomponent disease involves both airway and systemic inflammation at all stages and may influence the progression of disease and the pathophysiology of comorbidities. COPD is an umbrella term that covers many clinical subtypes with clearly different pulmonary and extra-pulmonary characteristics, but with persistent airflow limitation in common. This insight has led to the development of a more personalized approach in bronchodilator therapy, prevention of exacerbations, and advanced treatments (such as non-invasive ventilation and lung volume reduction techniques). However, systemic manifestations and comorbidities of COPD also contribute to different clinical phenotypes and warrant an individualized approach as part of integrated disease management. Over the past 15 years there has been a surge of bench and translational research regarding the genetics and pathogenesis of COPD, and several large-scale clinical trials have introduced new treatment paradigms for the condition. In this review, we have provided a deep insight of the condition with its management plan.